Chinese Grand

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Chinese Grand

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Chinese Grand

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Learn the words you need to communicate with confidence. An open-ended activity or situation does not have a planned ending, so it may develop in several ways.

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Word Lists. Choose your language. My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word.

The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. Translation of grand — English—Traditional Chinese dictionary.

His job has a grand title , but he's little more than a clerk. The novel deals with grand themes , but is never heavy or pretentious.

He's just reached the grand old age of I was disappointed not to get the job , but it's not that important in the grand scheme of things.

Present on this grand occasion were Andrew Davies, Melissa Peters and other such stars. None of his grand plans for a TV series ever came to fruition.

Want to learn more? C1 impressive and large or important. They always entertain their guests in grand style.

This portion of the canal was used to transport troops to what is now the North Korean border region during the Goguryeo-Sui Wars — The Grand Canal at this time was not a continuous, man-made canal, but a collection of often noncontiguous artificial channels and either canalized or natural rivers.

Although the Tang dynasty — capital at Chang'an was the most thriving metropolis of China in its day, it was the city of Yangzhou —in proximity to the Grand Canal—that was the economic hub of the Tang era.

By the year , it was recorded that about ,, kilograms , short tons of grain were shipped annually along the canal. After the An Shi Rebellion — , the economy of northern China was greatly damaged and never recovered due to wars and to constant flooding of the Yellow River.

Such a case occurred in the year when an enormous flood along the Grand Canal inundated thousands of acres of farmland and killed tens of thousands of people in the North China Plain.

The city of Kaifeng grew to be a major hub, later becoming the capital of the Song dynasty — Although the Tang and Song dynasty international seaports—the greatest being Guangzhou and Quanzhou , respectively—and maritime foreign trade brought merchants great fortune, it was the Grand Canal within China that spurred the greatest amount of economic activity and commercial profit.

Much of the Grand Canal south of the Yellow River was ruined for several years after when Du Chong decided to break the dykes and dams holding back the waters of the Yellow River in order to decimate the oncoming Jurchen invaders during the Jin—Song wars.

During the Mongol Yuan dynasty — the capital of China was moved to Beijing, eliminating the need for the canal arm flowing west to Kaifeng or Luoyang.

As in the Song and Jin era, the canal fell into disuse and dilapidation during the Yuan dynasty's decline. The Grand Canal was renovated almost in its entirety between and during the Ming dynasty — A magistrate of Jining, Shandong sent a memorandum to the throne of the Yongle Emperor protesting the current inefficient means of transporting 4,, dan ,, liters of grain a year by means of transferring it along several different rivers and canals in barge types that went from deep to shallow after the Huai River , and then transferred back onto deep barges once the shipment of grain reached the Yellow River.

This move deprived Nanjing of its status as chief political center of China. The reopening of the Grand Canal also benefited Suzhou over Nanjing since the former was in a better position on the main artery of the Grand Canal, and so it became Ming China's greatest economic center.

Besides its function as a grain shipment route and major vein of river-borne indigenous trade in China, the Grand Canal had long been a government-operated courier route as well.

The Manchus invaded China in the midth century, allowed through the northern passes by the Chinese general Wu Sangui once the Ming capital at Beijing had fallen into the hands of a rebel army.

The Manchus established the Qing dynasty — , and under their leadership, the Grand Canal was overseen and maintained just as in earlier times.

In , the Yellow River flooded and changed its course, severing the course of the canal in Shandong. This was foreseen by a Chinese official in , who remarked that the flood-prone Yellow River made the Grand Canal like a throat that could be easily strangled leading some officials to request restarting the grain shipments through the East China Sea.

Many of the canal sections fell into disrepair, and some parts were returned to flat fields. Even today, the Grand Canal has not fully recovered from this disaster.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in , the need for economic development led the authorities to order heavy reconstruction work.

By the s, pollution in the canal had reached the point where boat and barge crews could tell when they were nearing Hangzhou by the stench of the visibly black water.

The economic importance of the canal likely will continue. The governments of the Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang Provinces planned dredging meant to increase shipping capacity by 40 percent by As well as its present-day course, fourteen centuries of canal-building have left the Grand Canal with a number of historical sections.

Some of these have disappeared, others are still partially extant, and others form the basis for the modern canal. The following are the most important but do not form an exhaustive list.

In , to escape the problems caused by flooding of the Yellow River around Yutai now on the western shore of Weishan Lake , the Nanyang New Canal was opened.

This change in effect moved the Grand Canal from the low-lying and flood-prone land west of Weishan Lake onto the marginally higher land to its east.

It was fed by rivers flowing from east to west from the borders of the Shandong massif. In , a geological survey preceded its one-year construction.

The Huitong Canal, built by an engineer called Ma Zhizhen, ran across sharply sloping ground and the high concentration of locks gave it the nicknames chahe or zhahe , i.

Its great number of feeder springs between two and four hundred, depending on the counting method and season of the year also led to it being called the quanhe or 'river of springs'.

Song Li's improvements, recommended by a local man named Bai Ying, included damming the rivers Wen and Guang and drawing lateral canals from them to feed reservoir lakes at the very summit, at a small town called Nanwang.

He achieved this by joining two of these rivers' tributaries, the Si and the Ji respectively, at their closest point, across a low watershed of the Shandong massif.

Huan Wen's primitive summit canal became a model for the engineers of the Jizhou Canal. The Shanyang Canal originally opened onto the Yangtze a short distance south of Yangzhou.

As the north shore of the Yangtze gradually silted up to create the sandbank island of Guazhou, it became necessary for boats crossing to and from the Jiangnan Canal to sail the long way around the eastern edge of that island.

After a particularly rough crossing of the Yangtze from Zhenjiang, the local prefect realized that a canal dug directly across Guazhou would reduce the journey time and thus make the crossing safer.

Its course is today divided into seven sections. This southernmost section of the canal runs from Hangzhou in Zhejiang, where the canal connects with the Qiantang River, to Zhenjiang in Jiangsu, where it meets the Yangtze.

After leaving Hangzhou the canal passes around the eastern border of Lake Tai , through the major cities of Jiaxing , Suzhou , Wuxi , and Changzhou before reaching Zhenjiang.

It is generally a minimum of meters wide in the congested city centers, and often two or three times this width in the neighboring countryside.

The Suzhou section of the Jiangnan Canal flows through the western part of the city. It includes ten city gates and over 20 stone bridges of traditional design and historic areas that have been well preserved as well as temples and pavilions.

Here the land lying to the west of the canal is higher than its bed while the land to the east is lower. Traditionally the Shanghe region west of the canal has been prone to frequent flooding, while the Xiahe region to its east has been hit by less frequent but immensely damaging inundations caused by the failure of the Grand Canal levees.

Recent works have allowed floodwaters from Shanghe to be diverted safely out to sea. After Pizhou , a northerly course passes through Tai'erzhuang to enter Weishan Lake at Hanzhuang bound for Nanyang and Jining this course is the remnant of the New Nanyang Canal of — see below.

A southerly course passes close by Xuzhou and enters Weishan Lake near Peixian. This latter course is less used today.

At Weishan Lake, both courses enter Shandong province. It crosses a series of lakes—Zhaoyang, Dushan, and Nanyang—which nominally form a continuous body of water.

At present, diversions of water mean that the lakes are often largely dry land. North of the northernmost Nanyang Lake is the city of Jining.

In the s a new canal was dug to the south of the old summit section. The old summit section is now dry, while the new canal holds too little water to be navigable.

By this point waterless, it no longer connects to the river. It reappears again in Liaocheng City on the north bank where, intermittently flowing through a renovated stone channel, it reaches the city of Linqing on the Shandong — Hebei border.

Though one of the northernmost sections, its name derives from its position relative to Tianjin. The Wei River at this point is heavily polluted while drought and industrial water extraction have left it too low to be navigable.

The canal, now in Hebei province, passes through the cities of Dezhou and Cangzhou. Although to spectators, the canal appears to be a deep waterway in these city centers, its depth is maintained by weirs and the canal is all but dry where it passes through the surrounding countryside.

At its terminus, the canal joins the Hai River in the center of Tianjin City before turning north-west. In Tianjin, the canal heads northwest, for a short time following the course of the Yongding, a tributary of the Hai River , before branching off toward Tongzhou on the edge of the municipality of Beijing.

It is here that the modern canal stops and that a Grand Canal Cultural Park has been built. During the Yuan dynasty, a further canal on the Tonghui River connected Tongzhou with a wharf called the Houhai or "rear sea" in central Beijing.

In the Ming and Qing dynasties, however, the water level in the Tonghui River dropped and ships could not travel from Tongzhou to Beijing. Tongzhou then became the northern shipping terminus of the canal.

Cargo was unloaded at Tongzhou and transported to Beijing by land. The Tonghui river still exists as a wide, concrete-lined storm-channel and drain for the suburbs of Beijing.

Early canal construction took place in the Shanyin old canal in Shaoxing City, in the Spring and Autumn period approximately to BC.

In the Southern Song dynasty — , the capital was established at Linan, which meant that the Eastern Zhejiang Canal became an important shipping channel.

In recent years, because of newer modes of transportation, the canal has been gradually replaced. The reconstruction of the canal began in , by it was partially navigable, and the renovation project finished in , though the Ningbo section was not navigable until the end of Though the canal nominally crosses the watersheds of five river systems, in reality, the variation between these is so low that it has only a single summit section.

The elevation of the canal bed varies from 1 m below sea level at Hangzhou to At Beijing, it reaches 27 m, fed by streams flowing downhill from the mountains to the west.

The water flows from Beijing toward Tianjin, from Nanwang north toward Tianjin, and from Nanwang south toward Yangzhou.

The water level in the Jiangnan Canal remains scarcely above sea level the Zhenjiang ridge is 12 meters higher than that of the Yangtze River.

From the Tang to Qing dynasties, the Grand Canal served as the main artery between northern and southern China and was essential for the transport of grain to Beijing.

Although it was mainly used for shipping grain, it also transported other commodities and the corridor along the canal developed into an important economic belt.

Records show that, at its height, every year more than 8, boats [39] transported four to six million dan ,—, metric tons of grain.

The convenience of transport also enabled rulers to lead inspection tours to southern China. In the Qing dynasty, the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors made twelve trips to the south, on all occasions but one reaching Hangzhou.

The Grand Canal also enabled cultural exchange and political integration to occur between the north and south of China. The canal even made a distinct impression on some of China's early European visitors.

Marco Polo recounted the Grand Canal's arched bridges as well as the warehouses and prosperous trade of its cities in the 13th century.

The famous Roman Catholic missionary Matteo Ricci traveled from Nanjing to Beijing along the canal at the end of the 16th century. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in , the canal has been used primarily to transport vast amounts of bulk goods such as bricks, gravel, sand, diesel, and coal.

The Jianbi ship locks on the Yangtze are currently handling some 75,, tons [ vague ] each year, and the Li Canal is forecast to reach ,, tons [ vague ] in the next few years.

Currently, ships can only travel up to Jining. The section from Jining to Beijing is not available for transport due to the silt deposit buildup from the Yellow River and lack of water sources.

Construction on the Eastern Route officially began on December 27, , and water was supposed to reach Tianjin by However, water pollution has affected the viability of this project.

In , with China divided between the Jurchen -led Jin dynasty in the north and the Southern Song dynasty in the south, the Southern Song Emperor Xiaozong sent a delegation to the Jurchen to wish their ruler well for the New Year.

A scholar-official named Lou Yue, secretary to the delegation, recorded the journey, much of which was made upon the Grand Canal, and submitted his Diary of a Journey to the North to the emperor on his return.

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